Accepted for Publication: January 12, 2014.
Published Online: March 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.87.
Study concept and design: Winkelmayer, Mitani, Goldstein.
Acquisition of data: Winkelmayer.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Winkelmayer, Goldstein.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mitani, Brookhart, Chertow.
Statistical analysis: Winkelmayer, Mitani, Goldstein.
Obtained funding: Winkelmayer.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Winkelmayer, Chertow.
Study supervision: Winkelmayer.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Winkelmayer has served as a scientific advisor to Amgen, Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, and Keryx Biopharmaceuticals and on data safety monitoring boards for Medgenics and Medtronics. Dr Chertow serves on the Board of Directors of Satellite Healthcare and on the Scientific Advisory Board for DaVita Clinical Research and has served as an advisor to Amgen and Keryx Biopharmaceuticals. Dr Brookhart has received investigator-initiated research funding from Amgen and has served as a scientific advisor to Amgen and Merck. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant 1R01DK090181 from the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to Dr Winkelmayer. Data reported herein were supplied by the United States Renal Data System (USRDS).
Role of the Sponsors: The manuscript was reviewed and approved for publication by an officer of the NIDDK. The NIDDK had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: Interpretation and reporting of these data are the responsibility of the authors and in no way should be seen as official policy or interpretation of the US government.
Previous Presentation: An earlier version of this work was presented at the 2012 Kidney Week of the American Society of Nephrology; November 2, 2012; San Diego, California.