Accepted for Publication: November 16, 2013.
Published Online: February 10, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.14327.
Study concept and design: Kangovi, Grande, White, McCollum, Shannon, Long.
Acquisition of data: White, McCollum, Sellman, Long.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kangovi, Mitra, Grande, Long.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kangovi, Long.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mitra, Grande, White, McCollum, Sellman, Shannon, Long.
Statistical analysis: Kangovi, Mitra, Sellman.
Obtained funding: Kangovi, Shannon, Long.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Grande, White, McCollum, Shannon, Long.
Study supervision: Mitra, Grande, Long.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Penn Center for Health Improvement and Patient Safety, the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, the Penn Clinical and Translational Science Community-Based Research Grant, the Eisenberg Scholar Research Award, the Penn Department of Medicine, the Penn Presbyterian Department of Medicine, the Armstrong Founders Award, and the Penn Presbyterian Bach Fund.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentations: Study findings were presented at the 2013 National Meeting for the Society of General Internal Medicine; April 2013; Denver, Colorado; and received the Mack S. Lipkin Award. Findings were also presented at the United Hospital Fund and Greater New York Hospital Association 24th Annual Symposium on Health Care Services in New York: Research and Practice.
Additional Contributions: David Asch, MD, MBA, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, provided insightful review of the article, and Christopher Wirtalla, BA, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, provided independent analysis.
Correction: This article was corrected on February 14, 2014, to fix a URL in a reference.