Hospital CEOs can shape the priorities and performance of their organizations, and the degree to which their compensation is based on their hospitals’ quality performance is not well known. In a retrospective observational study, Joynt and coauthors sought to characterize CEO compensation and examine its relationship with quality metrics. They studied 2681 private, nonprofit US hospitals, overseen by 1877 CEOs, finding that the CEOs in the sample had a mean compensation of $595 781 in 2009. CEO pay was associated with the number of hospital beds overseen ($550 for each additional bed), teaching status ($425 078 more at major teaching vs nonteaching hospitals), and urban location. They found no association between CEO pay and hospitals’ performance on process quality, mortality rates, readmission rates, or measures of community benefit. In an Invited Commentary, Browner addresses the findings from the perspective of a hospital CEO.