Published Online: December 30, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.12756.
Study concept and design: Zallman, Woolhandler, Bor, McCormick.
Acquisition of data: Marrast.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Marrast, Bor, McCormick.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Marrast, Zallman, Woolhandler, McCormick.
Statistical analysis: Marrast, McCormick.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Zallman, Bor, McCormick.
Study supervision: Zallman, Woolhandler, Bor, McCormick.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants T32 HP10251 and T32 HP12706 from the Health Resources and Services Administration and the Ryoichi Sasakawa Fellowship Fund (Dr Marrast) and by grant 4 D34HP16868-03-03 from the Harvard Medical School Center of Excellence in Minority Health and Health Disparities, sponsored by Health Resources and Services Administration (Dr Zallman). No other disclosures were reported.
Role of the Sponsor: The Health Resources and Services Administration had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentations: This paper was presented at the New England Regional Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) meeting; March 8, 2013; New Haven, Connecticut, and at the 34th annual SGIM national meeting; April 24, 2013; Denver, Colorado.
Additional Contributions: David U. Himmelstein, MD (City University of New York School of Public Health at Hunter College), helped conceive the study idea and assisted with data analysis. He did not receive financial compensation for the role he played in the project.