Published Online: November 11, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.10432.
Study concept and design: Goldberger.
Acquisition of data: Both authors.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Both authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Goldberger.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Both authors.
Statistical analysis: Goldberger.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Alexander.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Alexander reported being an ad hoc member of the Food and Drug Administration’s Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee, serving as a paid consultant to IMS Health, and serving on an IMS Health scientific advisory board. This arrangement has been reviewed and approved by the Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies.
Funding/Support: Dr Alexander is supported by grant RO1 HS0189960 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; analysis or interpretation of the data; and preparation or final approval of the manuscript prior to publication.
Disclaimer: The statements, findings, conclusions, views, and opinions contained and expressed in this article are based in part on data obtained under license from the following IMS Health Incorporated information service—National Disease and Therapeutic Index (January 1997–December 2012)—and are not necessarily those of IMS Health Incorporated or any of its affiliated or subsidiary entities.
Additional Contributions: Matthew Daubresse, MHS, and Hsien-Yen Chang, PhD, provided research assistance.