Accepted for Publication: April 22, 2013.
Published Online: August 19, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9318.
Study concept and design: Horwitz, Moriarty, Brewster, Kanade.
Acquisition of data: Horwitz, Moriarty, Brewster, Kanade, Ziaeian, Jenq.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Horwitz, Moriarty, Chen, Fogerty, Kanade, Ziaeian, Krumholz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Horwitz, Chen, Brewster, Ziaeian, Jenq.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Moriarty, Fogerty, Brewster, Kanade, Ziaeian, Krumholz.
Statistical analysis: Horwitz, Fogerty.
Obtained funding: Horwitz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Horwitz, Moriarty, Fogerty, Brewster.
Study supervision: Horwitz, Moriarty.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Krumholz chairs a cardiac scientific advisory board for UnitedHealth and is the recipient of a research grant, through Yale University, from Medtronic. No other disclosures are reported.
Funding/Support: At the time this study was conducted, Dr Horwitz was supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award grant UL1 RR024139 and KL2 RR024138 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, and was a Centers of Excellence Scholar in Geriatric Medicine supported by the John A. Hartford Foundation and the American Federation for Aging Research. Dr Horwitz is now supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) (K08 AG038336) and by the American Federation for Aging Research through the Paul B. Beeson Career Development Award Program. This work was also supported by a grant from the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center at Yale University School of Medicine (P30AG021342 NIH/NIA). Dr Krumholz is funded by grant 1U01HL105270-03 (Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research at Yale University) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Previous Presentation: An earlier version of this work was presented as a poster presentation at the Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting; May 11, 2012; Orlando, Florida.