Accepted for Publication: June 9, 2013.
Published Online: September 2, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9774.
Study concept and design: McMahon, Waikar.
Acquisition of data: All authors.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: McMahon.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Zeng,Waikar.
Statistical analysis: McMahon, Zeng.
Study supervision: Waikar.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Waikar reported serving as a consultant to CVS Caremark, BioTrends Research Group, Harvard Clinical Research Institute, and Takeda; providing expert testimony for GE Healthcare, Northstar Rx, and Salix; and receiving grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases, Otsuka, Merck, Genzyme, and Satellite Healthcare.
Funding/Support: Dr Zeng was supported by the China Scholarship Council. Dr Waikar is supported by grants DK093574 and DK085660.
Previous Presentation: The results of this study were presented in part as a poster at the American Society of Nephrology Annual Meeting; November 3, 2012; San Diego, CA.
Additional Contributions: Shawn Murphy, MD, PhD, Henry Chueh, MD, MS, and the Partners Healthcare System Research Patient Data Registry group facilitated the use of their database.