Accepted for Publication: May 13, 2013.
Published Online: July 29, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.8992.
Study concept and design: Mafi, McCarthy, Landon.
Acquisition of data: Mafi, McCarthy.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mafi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: All authors.
Administrative, technical, and material support: McCarthy, Landon.
Study supervision: Landon.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by National Research Service Award training grant T32HP12706 from the US Health Services and Research Administration (Dr Mafi), the Ryoichi Sasakawa Fellowship Fund (Dr Mafi), and the Harvard Catalyst National Institutes of Health Award UL1 RR 025758 (Dr Davis).
Disclaimer: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Edward Marcantonio, MD, SM, Christina Wee, MD, MPH, John Orav, PhD, and John Ayanian, MD, MPP, provided methodologic and conceptual advice.
Correction: This article was corrected for an error in the text on January 14, 2014, and for an error in data presentation in the text on March 30, 2015.