Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prompt linkage to and sustained care, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with reduced individual morbidity and mortality and onward transmission of the virus. Hall and colleagues analyzed national HIV surveillance data to examine differences in percentages of persons living with HIV by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and transmission category at essential steps in the continuum of care. They found that the percentage of black patients in each step of the continuum was lower than that for white patients, but care and treatment differences were not statistically significant. Younger persons with HIV were less likely to be aware of their infection, receive care, or achieve viral suppression. In an Invited Commentary, Christopolous and Havlir consider the current state of HIV treatment and prevention.