Hirsch et al performed a comprehensive, systematic analysis of oncology clinical trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov between October 2007 and September 2010 to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of ongoing cancer research. Of 40 970 interventional studies registered during that time frame, 22% focused on oncology. Oncology trials were more likely to be single arm, open label, and nonrandomized compared with trials in other diseases. One-third of trials were conducted completely outside the United States, and there was only moderate correlation between the number of trials focused on a specific cancer type and the respective incidence or mortality. These and other results highlight the crucial need to better understand the trials being performed and to develop metrics with which to guide trial design to ensure that reliable, relevant data are generated to inform clinical care.