Published Online: June 10, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6489.
Study concept and design: Jackevicius and Krumholz.
Acquisition of data: Jackevicius and de Leon.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jackevicius.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Obtained funding: Jackevicius.
Administrative, technical, and material support: de Leon.
Study supervision: Jackevicius.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Krumholz is the recipient of a research grant, through Yale University, from Medtronic, and chairs a cardiac scientific advisory board for UnitedHealth.
Funding/Support: This study was funded in part by the College of Pharmacy of Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California, and in part by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) team grant in cardiovascular outcomes research to the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team. Dr Tu is supported by a Canada Research Chair in Health Services Research, and by a Career Investigator award of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Toronto. Dr Ko is supported by a New Investigator award from the CIHR. The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences is supported by an operating grant from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Toronto. Dr Krumholz is supported by grant U01-HL105270-03 (Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research at Yale University) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Role of the Sponsors: Neither Western University or CIHR were involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the CIHR or the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The statements, findings, conclusions, views, and opinions contained and expressed in this article are based in part on data obtained under license from the IMS Brogan CompuScript Audit database (2002-2009), and IMS Health National Prescription Audit (2002-2009). The statements, findings, conclusions, views, and opinions contained and expressed herein are not necessarily those of IMS Health Inc or any of its affiliated or subsidiary entities.
Additional Contributions: Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS, contributed to the interpretation of the data and provided input into revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content. The IMS Health–US and IMS-Brogan-Canada provided the data required for the analyses from the National Prescription Audit and the CompuScript Audit, respectively. Michael Warren, MA, of Claremont Graduate University, assisted with data analysis, for which he received compensation.