We recruited 727 men aged between 40 and 75 years to an online survey through e-mail solicitation (data were subsequently collected and analyzed anonymously). Participants received information regarding prostate cancer and answered some background questions (see Table). They were randomized to 1 of 4 conditions. In the first condition, “no PSA,” participants were given information about the risks and benefits of prostate biopsies and asked whether they would have a biopsy (yes or no) and their certainty, ranging from −100 (most certain they would not undergo biopsy) to +100 (most certain they would). In the other 3 conditions, participants were given information about PSA tests, as well as prostate biopsies, and were then presented with a scenario that asked them to imagine that they had just received their PSA test result at 1 of 3 PSA levels: normal, elevated, or inconclusive—the latter result stated “this result provides no information about whether or not you have cancer.” After getting the information about the PSA test and a particular outcome, participants were asked to indicate whether, under these conditions, they would undergo a biopsy and their level of certainty in that decision.