Importance The role of sex in relationship to implant failure after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is important for patient management and device innovation.
Objective To evaluate the association of sex with short-term risk of THA revision after adjusting for patient, implant, surgery, surgeon, and hospital confounders.
Design and Setting A prospective cohort of patients enrolled in a total joint replacement registry from April 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010.
Participants Patients undergoing primary, elective, unilateral THA.
Main Outcome Measures Failure of THA, defined as revision procedure for (1) any reason, (2) septic reason, or (3) aseptic reason after the index procedure.
Results A total of 35 140 THAs with 3.0 years of median follow-up were identified. Women constituted 57.5% of the study sample, and the mean (SD) patient age was 65.7 (11.6) years. A higher proportion of women received 28-mm femoral heads (28.2% vs 13.1%) and had metal on highly cross-linked polyethylene-bearing surfaces (60.6% vs 53.7%) than men. Men had a higher proportion of 36-mm or larger heads (55.4% vs 32.8%) and metal on metal-bearing surfaces (19.4% vs 9.6%). At 5-year follow-up, implant survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 97.2%-97.6%). Device survival for men (97.7%; 95% CI, 97.4%-98.0%) vs women (97.1%; 95% CI, 96.8%-97.4%) was significantly different (P = .01). After adjustments, the hazards ratios for women were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.11-1.51) for all-cause revision, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.10-1.58) for aseptic revision, and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.81-1.68) for septic revision.
Conclusions After considering patient-, surgery-, surgeon-, volume-, and implant-specific risk factors, women had a 29% higher risk of implant failure than men after THA in this community-based sample.