Accepted for Publication: October 8, 2012.
Published Online: January 28, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.2152
Author Contributions: Dr Gross had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Gross, Palmer, Houts, Coyne, and Strom. Acquisition of data: Gross, Chapman, O’Duor, and Palmer. Analysis and interpretation of data: Gross, Bellamy, Han, Palmer, Houts, and Coyne. Drafting of the manuscript: Gross, Bellamy, Chapman, and Coyne. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bellamy, Chapman, Han, O’Duor, Palmer, Houts, Coyne, and Strom. Statistical analysis: Gross, Bellamy, Han, and Houts. Obtained funding: Gross. Administrative, technical, and material support: Gross, Chapman, O’Duor, and Palmer. Study supervision: Chapman and Strom.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: During the course of this study, Dr Gross received research support via contracts with Bristol-Myers Squibb and Abbott Laboratories for work related to HIV and its treatment, but not for work on this study. Dr Strom was supported in part by contracts with and received payment for consulting with numerous pharmaceutical companies, none of which was related to HIV or this study. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by R01 MH067498 from the National Institute of Mental Health, UL1 RR024134 from the National Center for Research Resources, core services and support from the Penn Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI 045008), and career support from the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Dr Gross).
Role of the Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The results of the study do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Previous Presentation: This work was presented at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; March 8, 2012; Seattle, Washington.
Additional Information: This manuscript is dedicated to the memory of Thomas Ten Have, PhD, beloved colleague, teacher, and mentor.
Additional Contributions: We thank the members of the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee, Harvey M. Friedman, MD, and J. Sanford Schwartz, MD. We are most indebted to the volunteer participants and their referring health care providers.