Accepted for Publication: September 1, 2012.
Published Online: January 14, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.1604
Author Contributions: Travis Baggett had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Baggett, Hwang, and O’Connell. Acquisition of data: Baggett, Hwang, and Stringfellow. Analysis and interpretation of data: Baggett, Hwang, O’Connell, Porneala, Orav, Singer, and Rigotti. Drafting of the manuscript: Baggett. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Baggett, Hwang, O’Connell, Porneala, Stringfellow, Orav, Singer, and Rigotti. Statistical analysis: Baggett, Hwang, Porneala, and Orav. Obtained funding: Baggett and O’Connell. Administrative, technical, and material support: Baggett, Hwang, O’Connell, Stringfellow, and Singer. Study supervision: Baggett, O’Connell, and Rigotti.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Drs Baggett and O’Connell are staff physicians at BHCHP, where they receive financial compensation for rendering patient care services. At the time of the study, Ms Stringfellow was employed by BHCHP as a research coordinator.
Funding/Support: Funding for this study was provided by the General Medicine Division at Massachusetts General Hospital and by BHCHP, both in Boston. Dr Baggett also receives funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number K23DA034008 and from the American Cancer Society under award No. 122269-IRG-12-070-01-IRG.
Role of the Sponsor: The study content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. These funding entities had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentations: A preliminary summary of a portion of the study findings was presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Society of General Internal Medicine; May 6, 2011; Phoenix, Arizona. An updated summary of the study findings was presented at the National Health Care for the Homeless Council Annual Conference and Policy Symposium; May 16, 2012; Kansas City, Missouri.
Additional Contributions: We thank Kevin Foster, MPH, at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Registry of Vital Statistics for his assistance in accessing the state's death occurrence files; Robert N. Anderson, PhD, Chief of the Mortality Statistics Branch at the National Center for Health Statistics, for his assistance in explaining certain cause of death codes; Jill Roncarati, PA, MPH, for her clinical and analytic insight in interpreting the study findings; and Leah Isquith, BA, and Julie Marston, MPH, in the Research Department at BHCHP for their support and assistance in conducting this study. These individuals did not receive financial compensation for their contributions. This manuscript does not represent the views or work of these individuals or their respective agencies.