Accepted for Publication: June 28, 2012.
Published Online: November 26, 2012. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.1125
Author Contributions: Drs Song, Gibson, and Chernew had full access to the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Song, Ayanian, Wallace, and Chernew. Acquisition of data: Gibson and Chernew. Analysis and interpretation of data: Song, Ayanian, Wallace, He, Gibson, and Chernew. Drafting of the manuscript: Song and Chernew. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Song, Ayanian, Wallace, He, Gibson, and Chernew. Statistical analysis: Song and He. Obtained funding: Song. Administrative, technical, and material support: Song, Wallace, and Gibson. Study supervision: Ayanian and Chernew.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Ayanian is a consultant to RTI International on the development of statistical risk adjustment models for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to adjust payments to Medicare Advantage plans. Dr Gibson is employed by Thomson Reuters, the distributor of data used for this study. Dr Chernew is a commissioner on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and a health advisor to the Congressional Budget Office; he also discloses membership, consultancy, and grants from various public and private entities as follows: vice chair on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, and a health advisor to the Congressional Budget Office; paid board memberships with The Commonwealth Fund, Congressional Budget Office, Abbott, FairHealth, Value-Based Insurance Design Institute, CMS technical advisory panel, Benefit-Based Designs, Pfizer; nonpaid board memberships with Health Research & Educational Trust, North Carolina Prevention Partner Advisory Council on Evidence-Based Incentives and Benefits, Massachusetts Medical Society, Coalition for Health Services Research; consultancies with Trizetto, sanofi, Massachusetts Medical Society, America's Health Insurance Plans, Genentech, Thomson Reuters, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Hewitt, Johnson & Johnson, Altarum, Excellus, Avalere, Blue Cross Blue Shield; nonpaid expert testimony with the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Health hearing; an institutional grant or pending grant from the NIA, Universal American, Pfizer, The Commonwealth Fund; payment for manuscript preparation from Avalere, Blue Cross Blue Shield, Precision Health Economics, New America Foundation, London School of Economics; travel/accommodations/meeting expenses unrelated to activities listed from Texas A&M University, University of Chicago, Duke University, University of Toronto, Pennsylvania State University, Tilburg University, Yale School of Management, University of Pennsylvania, University of Southern California, American Enterprise Institute, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform, Chapter of Public Health & Occupational Physicians, Illinois Hospital Association; and editor for the Health Services Research Journal and the American Journal of Managed Care.
Funding/Support: Research for this article was supported by The Commonwealth Fund (Dr Chernew). Dr Song is supported by Predoctoral MD/PhD National Research Service Award F30-AG039175 from the National Institute on Aging and Predoctoral Fellowship T32-AG000186 in Aging and Health Economics from the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Role of the Sponsors: None of the funders were involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Joseph Newhouse, PhD, Thomas McGuire, PhD, Michael McWilliams, MD, PhD, and Michael McKellar, BA, for helpful comments and guidance.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Aging or the National Institutes of Health.