Treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes; however, the value of intensive blood pressure (BP) targets remains uncertain. We sought to determine the effectiveness and safety of treating BP to intensive targets (upper limit of 130 mm Hg systolic and 80 mm Hg diastolic) compared with standard targets (upper limit of 140-160 mm Hg systolic and 85-100 mm Hg diastolic) in patients with type 2 DM.
Using electronic databases, bibliographies, and clinical trial registries, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify randomized trials enrolling adults diagnosed as having type 2 DM and comparing prespecified BP targets. Data on study characteristics, risk for bias, and outcomes were collected. Random-effects models were used to pool relative risks and risk differences for mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke.
The use of intensive BP targets was not associated with a significant decrease in the risk for mortality (relative risk difference, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.55-1.05) or myocardial infarction (relative risk difference, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.80-1.08) but was associated with a decrease in the risk for stroke (relative risk, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.86). The pooled analysis of risk differences associated with the use of intensive BP targets demonstrated a small absolute decrease in the risk for stroke (absolute risk difference, −0.01; 95% CI, −0.02 to −0.00) but no statistically significant difference in the risk for mortality or myocardial infarction.
Although the use of intensive compared with standard BP targets in patients with type 2 DM is associated with a small reduction in the risk for stroke, evidence does not show that intensive targets reduce the risk for mortality or myocardial infarction.