Author Contributions: Mr Federspiel had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Federspiel, Stearns, Peppercorn, and Fowler. Acquisition of data: Federspiel, Stearns, and Fowler. Analysis and interpretation of data: Federspiel, Stearns, Peppercorn, Chu, and Fowler. Drafting of the manuscript: Federspiel, Peppercorn, Chu, and Fowler. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Federspiel, Stearns, Peppercorn, and Fowler. Statistical analysis: Federspiel and Stearns. Study supervision: Peppercorn.
Financial Disclosure: Mr Federspiel and Dr Stearns are employed by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and have received grant support from the National Institutes of Heath (NIH). Dr Peppercorn is employed by GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Chu has received research support from Merck and Pfizer and is employed by Duke University. Dr Fowler has served as a consultant for Astellas, Cubist, Inhibitex, Merck, Johnson & Johnson, Shire, Leo Pharmaceuticals, NovaDigm, The Medicines Company, Baxter Pharmaceuticals, and Biosynexus; he has received grant or research support from Astellas, Cubist, Inhibitex, Merck, Theravance, Cerexa, Pfizer, Novartis, Advanced Liquid Logic, and NIH; he has received honoraria from Arpida, Astellas, Cubist, Inhibitex, Merck, Pfizer, Targanta, Theravance, Wyeth, Ortho-McNeil, Novartis, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals; he has served on an advisory committee and a speakers' bureau for Cubist; he is employed by Duke University.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant T32 GM008719 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Mr Federspiel); grant R01 AG025801 from the National Institute on Aging (Dr Stearns); grants R01-AI068804 and K24 AI093969 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Dr Fowler); grant F30 HL110483 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Mr Federspiel); and grant 0675027N from the American Heart Association (Dr Chu).
Role of the Sponsors: None of the funding agencies had any role in the design and conduct of the study, the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: Preliminary data from this study was presented at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 17, 2011; Chicago, Illinois.
Additional Contributions: Tiffany Jewell, RHIA, assisted in developing the coding criteria. Peter H. Gilligan, PhD assisted in formulating the research objectives and design. Any errors are solely the responsibility of the authors.