Author Contributions: All authors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Raldow, Presley, Yu, and Gross. Acquisition of data: Sharma and Long. Analysis and interpretation of data: Raldow, Presley, Yu, Sharma, Cramer, Soulos, Long, and Makarov. Drafting of the manuscript: Raldow and Presley. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Raldow, Presley, Yu, Sharma, Cramer, Soulos, Long, Makarov, and Gross. Statistical analysis: Presley, Sharma, and Cramer. Obtained funding: Gross. Administrative, technical, and material support: Raldow. Study supervision: Makarov and Gross.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (5R01CA149045) and the James G. Hirsch Medical Student Research Fellowship.
Additional Contributions: The authors acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development and Information, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Information Management Services, Inc; and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare Database. This study used the SEER-Medicare–linked database.