Accepted for Publication: October 1, 2011.
Author Contributions: Drs Wellenius and Mittleman had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Wellenius, Schwartz, Schlaug, Gold, and Mittleman. Acquisition of data: Wellenius, Burger, Schwartz, Suh, Koutrakis, Schlaug, and Mittleman. Analysis and interpretation of data: Wellenius, Coull, Schwartz, Koutrakis, Schlaug, and Mittleman. Drafting of the manuscript: Wellenius. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wellenius, Burger, Coull, Schwartz, Suh, Koutrakis, Schlaug, Gold, and Mittleman. Statistical analysis: Wellenius, Coull, Schwartz, and Mittleman. Obtained funding: Wellenius, Suh, Koutrakis, Gold, and Mittleman. Administrative, technical, and material support: Burger, Suh, Schlaug, Gold, and Mittleman. Study supervision: Burger, Schlaug, and Mittleman.
Financial Disclosure: One or more of the authors have previously received or currently receive funding from the following sources: Health Effects Institute, Boston; Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California; US EPA; and National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grants ES015774, ES009825, ES017125, and ES000002 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, and grants R832416 and RD83479801 from the US EPA.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies were not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The contents of this report are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH, or US EPA.
Additional Contributions: Elissa Wilker, ScD, provided helpful suggestions regarding the manuscript.