Accepted for Publication: July 6, 2011.
Author Contributions: Ms Miller and Dr Nsa (Oklahoma Foundation for Medical Quality) had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The authors assume full responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the ideas presented. Study concept and design: Drye, Bernheim, Bradley, and Krumholz. Acquisition of data: Miller, Turkmani, Han, Krumholz. Analysis and interpretation of data: Herrin, Miller, Nsa, Ling, Rapp, Bratzler, Bradley, Nallamothu, and Ting. Drafting of the manuscript: Herrin and Krumholz. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Herrin, Turkmani, Nsa, Drye, Bernheim, Ling, Rapp, Han, Bratzler, Bradley, Nallamothu, Ting, and Krumholz. Statistical analysis: Herrin, Miller, and Nsa. Obtained funding: Drye, Ling, Rapp, Han, and Krumholz. Administrative, technical, and material support: Turkmani, Bernheim, Rapp, Han, and Bratzler. Study supervision: Han and Krumholz.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Krumholz reports that he chairs a Cardiac Scientific Advisory Board for UnitedHealthcare and that he is the recipient of a research grant from Medtronic, Inc, through Yale University.
Funding Support: This work was conducted under a federal government contract with the CMS (HHSM-500-2008-00025I, Task Order T0001). This work was supported by grant U01 HL105270-02 (Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research at Yale University) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Dr Krumholz).
Role of the Sponsor: The CMS staff fully participated in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and critical review of the manuscript. The CMS reviewed and approved the use of its data for this work and approved submission of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government.