Author Contributions: Dr Ma had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Cao and Ma. Acquisition of data: Sesso, Gaziano, and Ma. Analysis and interpretation of data: Cao, Kenfield, Song, Rosner, Qiu, Sesso, and Ma. Drafting of the manuscript: Cao. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cao, Kenfield, Song, Rosner, Qiu, Sesso, Gaziano, and Ma. Statistical analysis: Cao, Song, Rosner, Qiu, and Sesso. Obtained funding: Ma. Administrative, technical, and material support: Sesso, Gaziano, and Ma. Study supervision: Gaziano and Ma.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Gaziano reported that over the past 3 years he has received investigator-initiated research grants from the Department of Veterans Affairs, National Institutes of Health, and Amgen and has served as a consultant for and has received honoraria from Bayer.
Funding/Support: The PHS is supported by grants CA42182, CA-34944, CA-40360, and CA-097193 from the National Cancer Institute; grants HL-26490 and HL-34595 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; prevention grant 01984 from the Canada Cancer Society; and medical research grant PC073618 from the US Army.
Additional Contributions: We thank the participants in the PHS for their outstanding commitment and cooperation and the entire PHS staff for their expert and assistance.