Accepted for Publication: May 17, 2011.
Author Contributions: Dr Jonsson Funk had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Jonsson Funk, Fusco, Porter, Davidian, White, Hartmann, and Eron. Acquisition of data: Porter. Analysis and interpretation of data: Jonsson Funk, Fusco, Cole, Kaufman, Thomas, Davidian, White, Hartmann, and Eron. Drafting of the manuscript: Jonsson Funk, Fusco, and Cole. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jonsson Funk, Fusco, Cole, Thomas, Porter, Kaufman, Davidian, White, and Eron. Statistical analysis: Jonsson Funk, Cole, Porter, Kaufman, Davidian, and Hartmann. Obtained funding: Jonsson Funk and Porter. Administrative, technical, and material support: Jonsson Funk and Fusco. Study supervision: Jonsson Funk, Thomas, Kaufman, Hartmann, and Eron.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Jonsson Funk has received salary support from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) through a grant to the University of North Carolina Center for Excellence in Pharmacoepidemiology and Public Health and travel grants from GSK to attend the International Observational HIV Cohorts meetings in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Ms Fusco has been an independent consultant for GSK (1998-2004) and a salaried employee of GSK (2004-2005), has served as a scientific advisory board member for Tobira Therapeutics (2006), and has received unrestricted research grants from Merck & Co, Inc and GSK (2009). Dr Cole received honorarium of less than $2000 from GSK (2005-2008) and consulting fees of less than $6000 per year from the Jaeb Center for Health Research (2001-2009). Dr Porter has received a grant from GSK and honorarium from Tibotec. Dr White was a salaried employee of GSK until December 2010. Dr Eron has been a consultant for Merck, GSK, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Tibotec, Chimerix, Avexa, Gilead Science, ViiV, and Tobira and has received grant support from Merck and GSK.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by grant R01 AI 066920 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH). Additional support was provided by the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research, funded by grant P30 AI 50410 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH. The research leading to these results has received funding from a grant from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under EuroCoord grant agreement 260694.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Group Information: The members of the CASCADE Collaboration are as follows: Steering Committee: Julia Del Amo, MD (chair); Laurence Meyer, MD (vice chair); Heiner C. Bucher, MD; Geneviève Chêne, MD; Deenan Pillay, MD; Maria Prins, PhD; Magda Rosinska, PhD; Caroline Sabin, PhD; and Giota Touloumi, PhD. Coordinating Center: Kholoud Porter, PhD (project leader); Sara Lodi, PhD; Kate Coughlin, BSc; Sarah Walker, PhD; and Abdel Babiker, PhD. Clinical Advisory Board: Heiner C. Bucher, MD; Andrea De Luca, MD; Martin Fisher, MD; and Roberto Muga, MD. Collaborators:Australia: Sydney AIDS Prospective Study and Sydney Primary HIV Infection cohort (John Kaldor, PhD; Tony Kelleher, PhD; Tim Ramacciotti, BSc; Linda Gelgor, BSc; David Cooper, MD; and Don Smith, MD); Canada: South Alberta Clinic (John Gill, MD); Denmark: Copenhagen HIV Seroconverter cohort (Louise Bruun Jørgensen, PhD; Claus Nielsen, PhD; and Court Pedersen, MD); Estonia: Tartu Ülikool (Irja Lutsar, MD); France: Aquitaine cohort (Geneviève Chêne, MD; Francois Dabis, MD; Rodolphe Thiebaut, PhD; and Bernard Masquelier, PhD), French Hospital Database (Dominique Costagliola, PhD, and Marguerite Guiguet, PhD), Lyon Primary Infection cohort (Philippe Vanhems, MD), French PRIMO cohort (Marie-Laure Chaix, PhD, and Jade Ghosn, PhD), SEROCO cohort (Laurence Meyer, MD, and Faroudy Boufassa, MD); Germany: German cohort (Osamah Hamouda, MD; Claudia Kücherer, MD; and Barbara Bartmeyer, MD); Greece: Greek Haemophilia cohort (Giota Touloumi, PhD; Nikos Pantazis, PhD; Angelos Hatzakis, PhD; Dimitrios Paraskevis, PhD; and Anastasia Karafoulidou, MD); Italy: Italian Seroconversion Study (Giovanni Rezza, MD; Maria Dorrucci, BSc; and Claudia Balotta, PhD), ICONA cohort (Antonella d’Arminio Monforte, MD; Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, PhD; and Andrea De Luca, MD); the Netherlands: Amsterdam Cohort Studies among homosexual men and drug users (Maria Prins, PhD; Ronald Geskus, PhD; Jannie van der Helm, BSc; and Hanneke Schuitemaker, PhD); Norway: Oslo and Ulleval Hospital cohorts (Mette Sannes, LabMed; Oddbjorn Brubakk, MD; and Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, PhD); Poland: National Institute of Hygiene (Magdalena Rosinska, PhD, and Joanna Gniewosz, BSc); Portugal Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Ricardo Camacho, PhD); Russia: Pasteur Institute (Tatyana Smolskaya, MD); Spain: Badalona IDU hospital cohort (Roberto Muga, MD, and Jordi Tor, MD), Barcelona IDU cohort (Patricia Garcia de Olalla, MD, and Joan Cayla, MD), Madrid cohort (Julia Del Amo, MD, and Jorge del Romero, MD), and Valencia IDU cohort (Santiago Pérez-Hoyos, PhD); Switzerland: Swiss HIV Cohort Study (Heiner C. Bucher, MD; Martin Rickenbach, PhD; and Patrick Francioli, MD); Ukraine: Perinatal Prevention of AIDS Initiative (Ruslan Malyuta, MD); United Kingdom: Edinburgh Hospital cohort (Ray Brettle, MD), Health Protection Agency (Valerie Delpech, MD; Sam Lattimore, PhD; and Gary Murphy, PhD), Royal Free Haemophilia cohort (Caroline Sabin, PhD), UK Register of HIV Seroconverters (Kholoud Porter, MD; Anne Johnson, PhD; Andrew Phillips, PhD; Abdel Babiker, PhD; and Valerie Delpech, MD), University College London (Deenan Pillay, MD), and University of Oxford (Harold Jaffe, MD). African cohorts: Genital Shedding Study (US: Charles Morrison, MD; Family Health International, Robert Salata, MD; Case Western Reserve University, Uganda: Roy Mugerwa, PhD; Makerere University, Zimbabwe: Tsungai Chipato, PhD; University of Zimbabwe); and Early Infection cohorts (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia, and South Africa: Pauli Amornkul, MD, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative).
Additional Contributions: Bernadette Johnson, BS, MBA, The Blaze Group, provided SAS programming work on this project (paid using grant funds); A. Sarah Walker, PhD, MSc, and Abdel Babiker, PhD, salaried employees at the MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kindgom, provided advice regarding the study design and statistical analysis; Til Stürmer, MD, MPH, made suggestions regarding implementation of the weighted models (no compensation); and Rosemary McKaig, MPH, PhD, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, provided support as the study's NIH project officer (salaried employee of the NIH).