Accepted for Publication: April 25, 2011.
Author Contributions: Study concept and design: Beerepoot, ter Riet, Nys, de Reijke, Prins, Verbon, Stobberingh, and Geerlings. Acquisition of data: Beerepoot, Nys, de Reijke, Koeijers, Stobberingh, and Geerlings. Analysis and interpretation of data: Beerepoot, ter Riet, van der Wal, de Borgie, Prins, and Geerlings. Drafting of the manuscript: Beerepoot, ter Riet, van der Wal, de Borgie, Prins, Stobberingh, and Geerlings. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: ter Riet, Nys, van der Wal, de Reijke, Prins, Koeijers, Verbon, and Geerlings. Statistical analysis: Beerepoot, ter Riet, van der Wal, and Geerlings. Obtained funding: ter Riet, Stobberingh, and Geerlings. Administrative, technical, and material support: Beerepoot, Nys, Koeijers, Stobberingh, and Geerlings. Study supervision: ter Riet, de Borgie, Prins, Verbon, and Geerlings.
Financial Disclosure: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 62000017 from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. We received the cranberry and placebo capsules from Springfield Nutraceuticals BV, Oud Beijerland, the Netherlands.
Additional Information: Antibiotic prophylaxis and placebo tablets were prepared by Tiofarma BV, Oud-Beijerland, the Netherlands. C. Driessen, J. Maes, A. Zeelen, and C. van den Bogaerd, from the microbiology laboratory of the Maastricht University Medical Centre, performed the microbiologic assays; A. Vyth and W. Veenstra from the central pharmacy in the Academic Medical Center, M. Roskam-Mul, and J. Mohrs, helped with data management; and the medical students K. Slootmaker, L. Pijnenburg, H. Struijk, R. Britstra, and J. Langeraar assisted during recruitment, inclusion, and data entry. Members of the data and safety monitoring board were J. Veenstra, MD, PhD, R. van Etten, MD, PhD, K. Brinkman, MD, PhD, K. Schurink, MD, PhD, M. Soesan, MD, S. van der Geest, MD, PhD, and W. Geraedts, MD, PhD. Dutch Participating Hospitals (local study coordinators): Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam (S. E. de Rooij, MD, PhD), Maastricht University Medical Center (J. Koeijers, MD), University Medical Center in Utrecht (I. M. Hoepelman, MD, PhD), Medical Center Alkmaar (S. D. Bos, MD, PhD), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis in Amsterdam (G. van Andel, MD, PhD), Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital in Amsterdam (E. van Haarst, MD), Slotervaart Hospital in Amsterdam (J. P. C. M. van Campen, MD), Scheper Hospital in Emmen (W. van der Hoek, MD), Haga Hospital in Den Haag (F. Froehling, MD), and Orbis Medical Center in Sittard (J. V. Zambon, MD, PhD).