Studies of treatment interventions for hazardous and harmful drinkers in primary care settings demonstrate that brief interventions may effectively decrease alcohol consumption, improve liver function (among patients with previously elevated liver enzyme levels), and decrease the use of certain health services.6,67,78 Brief interventions appear to be equally effective in men and women, and efficacy may be enhanced when more than 1 session is administered.6 Despite these encouraging results, many critical questions remain regarding the effectiveness of brief interventions. First, since most studies report outcomes for 6 to 12 months, longer-term demonstration of the impact of these interventions is needed. Second, although the interventions were generally similar across these studies, the specific content and frequency of application varied considerably. Thus, the ideal intervention that can be generally applied in a variety of settings is unknown. Third, the need for repeated booster sessions over time has not been explored. Finally, more detailed assessments of long-term outcomes, such as sustained decreases in alcohol consumption, reduction in the progression of patients to more severe alcohol disorders (eg, alcohol dependence), and the overall cost-effectiveness of these approaches, should be established. Despite these questions, the current literature supports brief intervention therapy as a useful approach for primary care providers in caring for hazardous and harmful drinkers.