0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Investigation |

Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels:  The Framingham Heart Study FREE

Bruce F. Culleton, MD; Martin G. Larson, SCD; Jane C. Evans, MPH; Peter W. F. Wilson, MD; Brendan J. Barrett, MD; Patrick S. Parfrey, MD; Daniel Levy, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Mass (Drs Culleton, Larson, Wilson, and Levy and Ms Evans); the Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass (Dr Larson and Ms Evans); and the Division of Nephrology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's (Drs Barrett and Parfrey).


Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(15):1785-1790. doi:10.1001/archinte.159.15.1785.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Elevated serum creatinine (SCr) levels are a predictor of end-stage renal disease, but little is known about the prevalence of elevated SCr levels and their correlates in the community.

Methods  In this cross-sectional, community-based sample, SCr levels were measured in 6233 adults (mean age, 54 years; 54% women) who composed the "broad sample" of this investigation. A subset, consisting of 3241 individuals who were free of known renal disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes, constituted the healthy reference sample. In this latter sample, sex-specific 95th percentiles for SCr levels (men, 136 µmol/L [1.5 mg/dL]; women, 120 µmol/L [1.4 mg/dL]) were labeled cutpoints. These cutpoints were applied to the broad sample in a logistic regression model to identify prevalence and correlates of elevated SCr levels.

Results  The prevalence of elevated SCr levels was 8.9% in men and 8.0% in women. Logistic regression in men identified age, treatment for hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.42), and body mass index (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15) as correlates of elevated SCr levels. Additionally, men with diabetes who were receiving antihypertensive medication were more likely to have raised SCr values (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.60-5.39). In women, age, use of cardiac medications (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.96), and treatment for hypertension (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.87) were associated with elevated SCr levels.

Conclusions  Elevated SCr levels are common in the community and are strongly associated with older age, treatment for hypertension, and diabetes. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the clinical outcomes of individuals with elevated levels of SCr and to examine factors related to the progression of renal disease in the community.

Figures in this Article

THE INCIDENCE and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continue to grow.1,2 The social burden of ESRD also is becoming heavier. Although serum creatinine (SCr) levels are not an ideal marker for renal function,3 they are strongly predictive of the subsequent development of ESRD. Recently, Iseki et al4 measured SCr levels in 14,609 participants from a community screening project in Okinawa, Japan. For each increment of 18 µmol/L (0.2 mg/dL) in SCr levels, the odds [OR] ratio for the development of ESRD was 5.3 in men and 3.9 in women, when compared with those who had SCr levels of less than 106 µmol/L (1.2 mg/dL) in men and 88 µmol/L (1.0 mg/dL) in women. Consequently, from a public health perspective, it is imperative to know the prevalence of elevated SCr levels and to identify predictors in the community. The few community-based studies that have targeted this issue have suffered from possible selection or referral bias48 or have included limited demographic groups.9,10

Therefore, in this article, we report SCr values from a large cross-sectional community-based sample, in which referral bias was inherently minimal. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the distribution of SCr values by age and sex, (2) to determine the upper normal limits of SCr levels in a large community-based sample, (3) and to identify the prevalence and correlates of elevated SCr levels.

STUDY SAMPLE

The selection criteria and study design of the Framingham Heart Study and the Framingham Offspring Study have been detailed previously.11,12 Original subjects of the Framingham Heart Study who participated in the 15th biennial examination (1977-1979; N=2632) and adult participants in the second examination of the Framingham Offspring Study (1979-1983; N=3853) constituted the study sample for this investigation. Blood samples for determination of SCr levels were obtained in 6233 individuals (96%). These 6233 participants constituted the broad sample; a healthy subgroup of 3241 individuals who were not taking cardiac or antihypertensive medications and who were free of known renal disease, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus made up the reference sample.

BASELINE MEASUREMENTS AND DEFINITIONS

A medical history and physical examination were obtained on each subject at every clinic visit. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were obtained twice in the left arm of seated subjects by the examining physician using a mercury column sphygmomanometer positioned near eye level. The average of the 2 readings was used for each blood pressure variable. Height and weight were measured at each examination; body mass index (BMI) was computed as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. Serum creatinine values were determined by either the autoanalyzer technique13,14 or the creatinine imodohydrolase assay.15

The diagnosis of prevalent cardiovascular disease included coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, intermittent claudication, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Coronary heart disease included myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, and angina pectoris. The Framingham definitions of cardiovascular disease and related events have been described elsewhere.16 The diagnosis of hypertension was based on the following criteria of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure17: blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg systolic, greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg diastolic, or current antihypertensive drug treatment. Diabetes was defined on the basis of a nonfasting blood glucose level of greater than or equal to 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL), a fasting blood glucose level of greater than or equal to 7.8 mmol/L (141 mg/L), or the use of insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent. Use of cardiac medications was coded and included digoxin, nitrates, antiarrhythmics, and diuretics (for congestive heart failure). At each examination, the presence of previous renal disease was determined by the interviewing physician or by review of the participant's medical history and records.

ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL METHODS

After age and BMI were adjusted for, a small fixed difference in SCr values was found between the laboratory used for the original Framingham Heart Study participants and the laboratory used for the Offspring participants. This difference, 5 µmol/L (0.06 mg/dL) in men and 3 µmol/L (0.03 mg/dL) in women, was subtracted from the SCr values of the Offspring subjects. All reported SCr values reflect this calibration.

In the healthy reference sample, sex-specific 95th percentiles for SCr were labeled cutpoints, which defined the upper limit of normal values. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression18 was applied to the broad sample to identify variables associated with SCr values that were greater than the cutpoints. Candidate variables in the logistic regression were age, BMI (truncated at 27.8 kg/m2 in men and 27.3 kg/m2 in women, corresponding to values used to define obesity),19 systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, total serum cholesterol level, treatment for hypertension (no vs yes), cardiovascular disease (no vs yes), use of cardiac medications (no vs yes), diabetes (no vs yes), and current smoking status (no vs yes). Proteinuria, protein intake, and physical activity were not assessed. Furthermore, age-dependent cutpoints were not formulated owing to uncertainty in distinguishing the physiologic from the pathologic effects of aging on renal function.

All significant explanatory variables in the sex-specific stepwise models were tested for interaction. Finally, goodness-of-fit statistics were generated. All analyses were performed using a commercially available software system20 (SUN Ultra Enterprise 2). A 2-sided P value of less than .05 was the criterion for statistical significance.

SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS

Table 1 summarizes the baseline characteristics of the broad and reference samples. Subjects in the reference sample were younger than those in the broad sample (mean age, 48 years vs 54 years). The proportion of men and women in each sample was similar. The mean SCr value was 107 µmol/L (1.2 mg/L) in men and 92 µmol/L (1.0 mg/dL) in women in the broad sample, and 105 µmol/L (1.9 mg/dL) in men and 90 µmol/L (1.0 mg/dL) in women in the reference sample. By definition, the blood pressure of the subjects in the reference sample was lower. A slightly higher proportion of subjects in the reference sample were current smokers (men, 36% vs 30%; women, 34% vs 30%). Serum lipid values did not differ much between the 2 samples.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Clinical Characteristics of Subjects in the Broad and Reference Samples*

Figure 1 illustrates the mean SCr levels by age and sex in the reference sample. Among individuals younger than 80 years, decade-specific mean SCr values varied by less than 5% in men and 6% in women. Men exhibited an 11% to 21% higher mean SCr level than women across this same age range.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

Reference sample: 95th percentile cutpoints for men and women (dashed lines) and crude mean serum creatinine levels for men (solid line, closed circles) and women (solid line, open circles) per decade of age.

Graphic Jump Location
ELEVATED SCr LEVELS: PREVALENCE AND SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS

The sex-specific 95th percentile cutpoints for SCr were 136 µmol/L (1.5 mg/dL) in men and 120 µmol/L (1.4 mg/dL) in women. In the broad sample, 8.9% of men and 8.0% of women had an SCr value greater than these cutpoints (Figure 2). In men, the prevalence of elevated SCr levels changed little with age from the third to seventh decades of life. An abrupt increase in prevalence with age was observed thereafter. In women, the prevalence increased from approximately 2.5% in the 20- to 49-year-old age range to 23% in the ninth decade of life.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Broad sample: prevalence of serum creatinine values greater than the sex-specific 95th percentile cutpoint generated from the reference sample, by sex.

Graphic Jump Location

Table 2 details the clinical characteristics of subjects with elevated SCr levels. It also provides comparison data with the remainder of subjects in the broad sample. In subjects above the 95th percentile cutpoint, the mean SCr value was 154 µmol/L (1.7 mg/dL) (median, 141 µmol/L [1.6 mg/dL]; range, 136-861 µmol/L [1.5-9.7 mg/dL]) in men and 139 µmol/L (1.6 mg/dL) (median, 133 µmol/L [1.5 mg/dL]; range, 120-686 µmol/L [1.4-7.8 mg/dL]) in women. More than one third of these subjects were receiving treatment for hypertension; 10% had diabetes; and 1 in 5 had cardiovascular disease.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Clinical Characteristics of Subjects in the Broad Sample Less Than and Greater Than the 95th Percentile Cutpoints for Serum Creatinine Values*
LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS

When cutpoints generated from the healthy reference group were applied to the broad sample, forward stepwise multiple logistic regression identified several variables that were significantly associated with elevated SCr levels (Table 3). In men, age2 (OR, 1.10 for [(age−55)/10]2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.15), treatment for hypertension (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.27-2.42), and BMI (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15) were significantly associated with elevated SCr levels. Additionally, diabetic men who were receiving antihypertensive medication were more likely to have SCr values greater than the cutpoint (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.60-5.39). In women, age (OR, 1.66 for [age−55]/10; 95% CI, 1.50-1.84), the use of cardiac medications (OR, 1.58; 95% CI 1.10-2.96), and treatment for hypertension (OR, 1.42; 95% CI 1.07-1.87) were identified as significant predictors of elevated SCr levels. The final sex-specific models generated acceptable goodness-of-fit statistics (men, P=.48; women, P=.42).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Correlates of Elevated Serum Creatinine Values in the Broad Sample: Results of Logistic Regression*

From the healthy reference sample, we also generated cutpoints using the sex-specific upper 10th percentile (127 µmol/L [1.4 mg/dL] in men and 112 µmol/L [1.3 mg/dL] in women). These cutpoints were applied to the broad sample, in which the prevalence of SCr values exceeding the 90th percentile was 12.0% in men and 13.6% in women. Using forward multiple logistic regression, similar variables were found associated with elevated SCr levels: in men, age, treatment for hypertension, BMI, and diabetes; in women, age, prevalent cardiovascular disease, treatment for hypertension, and smoking.

From a healthcare planning perspective, it is imperative that we learn more about the prevalence and correlates of impaired renal function in the community, since the prevalence of ESRD in developed countries continues to rise.1,2,21,22 Several investigators have attempted to quantify this problem, but have had difficulties with referral bias or have limited their study to the immediate predialysis population.2326 To our knowledge, this study is the first to address these issues in a large community sample, with inherently minimal bias. We found that 8.9% of men and 8.0% of women had elevated SCr values.

The comorbidity in individuals with raised SCr levels was striking. Nearly 20% of this cohort had preexisting cardiovascular disease; more than 1 in 3 persons were receiving treatment for hypertension; 10% were diabetic; and there was a tendency toward higher total serum cholesterol levels and higher triglyceride levels.

By far, age had the strongest impact on SCr levels. We looked for this effect in 2 ways. First, analysis in the reference sample revealed little change in mean SCr values up to the ninth decade of life (Figure 1); however, the small number of individuals older than 80 years limited the precision of the mean SCr estimates, and thereby limited our ability to draw conclusions about creatinine trends in this oldest age group. Second, the impact of age on the prevalence of elevated SCr levels was assessed (Figure 2). Here, the effect of age was more dramatic. This age effect was statistically confirmed in the regression analyses, in which age terms were significant in both men and women. In men, there was a quadratic relationship between age and elevated SCr levels: odds of hypercreatininemia increased geometrically as age differed from 55 years; the rate of increase was (1.095)x, where x=([age−55]/10)2. For example, the increase in age from 60 to 70 years was associated with a 21% increase in the odds of hypercreatininemia being present. The failure of the risk of hypercreatininemia to increase with age in men aged 30 to 55 years may reflect the relative contribution of an age-related decline in muscle mass.27 In women, the relationship of age with elevated SCr levels was linear. For every 10-year increase in age, the odds of having an elevated SCr level was increased by 66%. The association of age with SCr levels in this study is in keeping with prior reports demonstrating an age-related decline in creatinine clearance.2830 Aging results in a loss of renal mass,31 in an increase in sclerotic glomeruli,32,33 and thus in impaired filtration.

Pharmacological treatment for high blood pressure was associated with elevated SCr levels in men and women. No other blood pressure variable was associated with elevated SCr levels once hypertension treatment was entered. Hypertension treatment is likely a marker for individuals with the most severe hypertension and for those most likely to have target organ damage, including renal impairment. It is also possible that the antihypertensive medication played a causal role in these findings. Diuretics can lead to reduced glomerular filtration,34 which is typically reversible. Antihypertensive drugs may also render the kidney more vulnerable to noxious stimuli, such as the combination of a diuretic and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.35 In this analysis, we did not examine the type of antihypertensive drug prescribed, and we did not investigate whether the subjects used anti-inflammatory medications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were not commonly used during the time period involved in this study.

There were 325 subjects with diabetes (178 men and 147 women) in the broad sample of our study. In men, logistic regression identified diabetes as an additional correlate of raised SCr levels; however, further analysis revealed an interaction with hypertension treatment whereby correlation with hypercreatininemia existed only in men with diabetes who were receiving treatment for hypertension. This finding is consistent with the present understanding of diabetic nephropathy. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, diabetic renal disease has been linked to high blood pressure. This relationship likely reflects not only elevation of blood pressure in response to renal disease,36,37 but also the contribution of blood pressure to the progression and pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.3841 In women, we did not find an association between diabetes and elevated SCr levels. This is difficult to explain without data on the duration of diabetes or glycemic control, variables strongly related to the development of small vessel disease.

Body mass index was also associated with elevated SCr levels in men, but not in women. It is generally understood that men have a greater percentage of muscle mass than women at any level of BMI.42 As creatinine is formed from muscle creatine,43 it is not surprising that BMI was associated with higher SCr values. It is plausible that a better measure of muscle mass, such as that obtained from bioimpedance or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, would provide more significant correlations with SCr values.

In women, the use of cardiac medications was identified as an additional association with elevated SCr values. It is possible that the use of cardiac medications is a marker for generalized vascular disease, which in turn is associated with impaired renal function. Alternatively, the elevated SCr values may be attributable to drug treatment rather than to the disease it is being used to treat.

Several limitations should be considered in the interpretation of this study's results. First, the study sample was overwhelmingly white. The reported reference values and identified correlates of elevated SCr levels may not apply to nonwhite, non-European populations. Our overall prevalence rates may underestimate the prevalence of elevated SCr levels in African American or American Indian subjects, in whom prevalent ESRD rates are 3 to 4 times higher than those in white Americans.2 Such a discrepancy may also exist in the prevalence of milder forms of renal impairment. Furthermore, we may be overestimating the prevalence in white Americans. Our data represent a cohort of generally older individuals. Approximately 30% of our participants were 65 years of age or older. This contrasts with only 14% of the 1994 US white population.44 Accordingly, our decade-specific prevalence rates may be more useful than the composite rates for the entire sample.

Second, SCr values were used as the marker for impaired renal function. Because of a reciprocal relationship between SCr values and glomerular filtration rate, a large change in the rate of glomerular filtration is required to increase SCr levels from the normal to the elevated range. Also, many conditions not associated directly with glomerular filtration can alter SCr levels, including muscle wasting, vigorous prolonged exercise, ingesting cooked meat, and therapy with certain cephalosporins, cimetidine, or trimethoprim.3,15 It is important to stress that an SCr value within the "normal" range does not necessarily imply a normal glomerular filtration rate. Ideally, an alternative more accurate measure of glomerular filtration should be used.

Third, we chose the 95th percentile for the cutpoint in the healthy reference sample. This was an arbitrary decision, as there are no scientifically based guidelines in the literature. As with most continuous biological variables, the cutpoint to divide normal from abnormal is often arbitrary, and frequently changes with time. Serum cholesterol and blood glucose levels are good examples.

Finally, this is a cross-sectional study. Such a study is useful for descriptive purposes, and to identify associations, but not to determine causation.

In conclusion, elevated SCr levels in the community are common and are strongly associated with age, hypertension treatment, and diabetes. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the clinical outcomes of individuals with elevated SCr levels and to examine factors related to the progression of renal disease in the community. We are currently analyzing longitudinal follow-up data on our study sample.

Reprints: Daniel Levy, MD, Framingham Heart Study, 5 Thurber St, Framingham, MA 01702.

Accepted for publication January 19, 1999.

This study was supported in part by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Insitututes of Health, Bethesda, Md (contract N01-HC-38038). Dr Culleton is a recipient of the 1997-1999 Kidney Foundation of Canada Fellowship.

The findings of this study were published in part as an abstract (J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8:135A).

Canadian Institute for Health Information, Annual Report 1996, Volume 1: Dialysis and Renal Transplantation.  Ottawa, Ontario Canadian Organ Replacement Register, Canadian Institute for Health Information1996;
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 1997 Annual Data Report.  Bethesda, Md National Institutes of Health1997;
Levey  ASPerrone  RDMadias  NE Serum creatinine and renal function. Annu Rev Med. 1988;39465- 490
Iseki  KIkemiya  YFukiyama  K Risk factors of end-stage renal disease and serum creatinine in a community-based mass screening. Kidney Int. 1997;51850- 854
Iseki  KIkemiya  YFukiyama  K Blood pressure and risk of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort. Kidney Int Suppl. 1996;55S69- S71
Iseki  KIseki  CIkemiya  YFukiyama  K Risk of developing end-stage renal disease in a cohort of mass screening. Kidney Int. 1996;49800- 805
Klag  MJWhelton  PKRandall  BL  et al.  Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1996;33413- 18
Perneger  TVNieto  FJWhelton  PKKlag  MJComstock  GWSzklo  M A prospective study of blood pressure and serum creatinine: results from the ‘Clue' Study and the ARIC Study. JAMA. 1993;269488- 493
Salive  MEJones  CAGuralnik  JMAgodoa  LYPahor  MWallace  RB Serum creatinine levels in older adults: relationship with health status and medications. Age Ageing. 1995;24142- 150
Feinfeld  DAGuzik  HCarvounis  CP  et al.  Sequential changes in renal function tests in the old old: results from the Bronx Longitudinal Aging Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43412- 414
Dawber  TRMeadors  GFMoore  FE Epidemiologic approaches to heart disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Public Health. 1951;41279- 286
Kannel  WBFeinleib  MMcNamara  PMGarrison  RJCastelli  WP An investigation of coronary heart disease in families: the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110281- 290
Bowers  LDWong  ET Kinetic serum creatinine assays, II: a critical evaluation and review. Clin Chem. 1980;26555- 561
Bowers  LD Kinetic serum creatinine assays, I: the role of various factors in determining specificity. Clin Chem. 1980;26551- 554
Perrone  RDMadias  NELevey  AS Serum creatinine as an index of renal function: new insights into old concepts. Clin Chem. 1992;381933- 1953
Shurtleff  D Some characteristics related to the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death: Framingham Heart Study 18-year follow-up. Kannel  WBGordon  Teds.The Framingham Study, Section 30. Washington, DC US Government Printing Office1974;17- 25
Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and National HIgh Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Commitee, The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;1572413- 2446
Hosmer  DWLemeshow  S Applied Logistic Regression.  New York, NY John Wiley & Sons Inc1989;
National Institutes of Health, Health implications of obesity: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103147- 151
Not Available, SAS/STAT Software: Changes and Enhancements Through Release 6.11.  Cary, NC SAS Institute Inc1996;383- 490
Disney  AP ANZDATA Report.  Adelaide, South Australia Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry1996;
European Dialysis and Transplant Association, Report on management of renal failure in Europe, XXIII, 1992. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(suppl 1)6- 25
Jungers  PChauveau  PDescamps-Latscha  B  et al.  Age and gender-related incidence of chronic renal failure in a French urban area: a prospective epidemiologic study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;111542- 1546
Khan  IHCatto  GREdward  NMacLeod  AM Chronic renal failure: factors influencing nephrology referral. QJM. 1994;87559- 564
Strauss  MJPort  FKSomen  CWolfe  RA An estimate of the size of the US predialysis population with renal insufficiency and anemia. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993;21264- 269
McGeown  MG Prevalence of advanced renal failure in Northern Ireland. BMJ. 1990;301900- 903
Cohn  SHVartsky  DYasumura  S  et al.  Compartmental body composition based on total-body nitrogen, potassium, and calcium. Am J Physiol. 1980;239E524- E530
Lindeman  RDTobin  JShock  NW Longitudinal studies on the rate of decline in renal function with age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985;33278- 285
Rowe  JWAndres  RTobin  JDNorris  AHShock  NW The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Gerontol. 1976;31155- 163
Rowe  JWAndres  RTobin  JD Age-adjusted standards for creatinine clearance. Ann Intern Med. 1976;84567- 569
Wald  H The weight of normal adult human kidneys and its variability. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1937;23493- 500
Kaplan  CPasternack  BShah  HGallo  G Age-related incidence of sclerotic glomeruli in human kidneys. Am J Pathol. 1975;80227- 234
Kappel  BOlsen  S Cortical interstitial tissue and sclerosed glomeruli in the normal human kidney, related to age and sex: a quantitative study. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat. 1980;387271- 277
Greger  RHeidland  A Action and clinical use of diuretics. Cameron  JSDavison  AMGrunfeld  JPeds.Clinical Nephrology. London, England Oxford University1991;197
Favre  LGlasson  PVallotton  MB Reversible acute renal failure from combined triamterene and indomethacin: a study in healthy subjects. Ann Intern Med. 1982;96317- 320
Raal  FJKalk  WJTaylor  DROsler  CEPanz  VR The relationship between the development and progression of microalbuminuria and arterial blood pressure in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1992;16221- 227
Mathiesen  ERRonn  BJensen  TStorm  BDeckert  T Relationship between blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in development of microalbuminuria. Diabetes. 1990;39245- 249
Nelson  RGPettitt  DJBaird  HR  et al.  Pre-diabetic blood pressure predicts urinary albumin excretion after the onset of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Pima indians. Diabetologia. 1993;36998- 1001
Barzilay  JWarram  JHBak  MLaffel  LMCanessa  MKrolewski  AS Predisposition to hypertension: risk factor for nephropathy and hypertension in IDDM. Kidney Int. 1992;41723- 730
Krolewski  ASCanessa  MWarram  JH  et al.  Predisposition to hypertension and susceptibility to renal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1988;318140- 145
Viberti  GCKeen  HWiseman  MJ Raised arterial pressure in parents of proteinuric insulin-dependent diabetics. BMJ. 1987;295515- 517
Baumgartner  RNHeymsfield  SBRoche  AF Human body composition and the epidemiology of chronic disease. Obes Res. 1995;373- 95
Boorsook  HBubroff  JW The hydrolysis of phosphocreatine and the origin of urinary creatinine. J Biol Chem. 1947;168493- 510
Not Available, Morbidity and Mortality: 1996 Chartbook on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases.  Bethesda, Md National Institutes of Health1996;
Cockcroft  DWGault  MH Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron. 1976;1631- 41

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

Reference sample: 95th percentile cutpoints for men and women (dashed lines) and crude mean serum creatinine levels for men (solid line, closed circles) and women (solid line, open circles) per decade of age.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Broad sample: prevalence of serum creatinine values greater than the sex-specific 95th percentile cutpoint generated from the reference sample, by sex.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Clinical Characteristics of Subjects in the Broad and Reference Samples*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Clinical Characteristics of Subjects in the Broad Sample Less Than and Greater Than the 95th Percentile Cutpoints for Serum Creatinine Values*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Correlates of Elevated Serum Creatinine Values in the Broad Sample: Results of Logistic Regression*

References

Canadian Institute for Health Information, Annual Report 1996, Volume 1: Dialysis and Renal Transplantation.  Ottawa, Ontario Canadian Organ Replacement Register, Canadian Institute for Health Information1996;
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 1997 Annual Data Report.  Bethesda, Md National Institutes of Health1997;
Levey  ASPerrone  RDMadias  NE Serum creatinine and renal function. Annu Rev Med. 1988;39465- 490
Iseki  KIkemiya  YFukiyama  K Risk factors of end-stage renal disease and serum creatinine in a community-based mass screening. Kidney Int. 1997;51850- 854
Iseki  KIkemiya  YFukiyama  K Blood pressure and risk of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort. Kidney Int Suppl. 1996;55S69- S71
Iseki  KIseki  CIkemiya  YFukiyama  K Risk of developing end-stage renal disease in a cohort of mass screening. Kidney Int. 1996;49800- 805
Klag  MJWhelton  PKRandall  BL  et al.  Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1996;33413- 18
Perneger  TVNieto  FJWhelton  PKKlag  MJComstock  GWSzklo  M A prospective study of blood pressure and serum creatinine: results from the ‘Clue' Study and the ARIC Study. JAMA. 1993;269488- 493
Salive  MEJones  CAGuralnik  JMAgodoa  LYPahor  MWallace  RB Serum creatinine levels in older adults: relationship with health status and medications. Age Ageing. 1995;24142- 150
Feinfeld  DAGuzik  HCarvounis  CP  et al.  Sequential changes in renal function tests in the old old: results from the Bronx Longitudinal Aging Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43412- 414
Dawber  TRMeadors  GFMoore  FE Epidemiologic approaches to heart disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Public Health. 1951;41279- 286
Kannel  WBFeinleib  MMcNamara  PMGarrison  RJCastelli  WP An investigation of coronary heart disease in families: the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110281- 290
Bowers  LDWong  ET Kinetic serum creatinine assays, II: a critical evaluation and review. Clin Chem. 1980;26555- 561
Bowers  LD Kinetic serum creatinine assays, I: the role of various factors in determining specificity. Clin Chem. 1980;26551- 554
Perrone  RDMadias  NELevey  AS Serum creatinine as an index of renal function: new insights into old concepts. Clin Chem. 1992;381933- 1953
Shurtleff  D Some characteristics related to the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death: Framingham Heart Study 18-year follow-up. Kannel  WBGordon  Teds.The Framingham Study, Section 30. Washington, DC US Government Printing Office1974;17- 25
Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and National HIgh Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Commitee, The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;1572413- 2446
Hosmer  DWLemeshow  S Applied Logistic Regression.  New York, NY John Wiley & Sons Inc1989;
National Institutes of Health, Health implications of obesity: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103147- 151
Not Available, SAS/STAT Software: Changes and Enhancements Through Release 6.11.  Cary, NC SAS Institute Inc1996;383- 490
Disney  AP ANZDATA Report.  Adelaide, South Australia Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry1996;
European Dialysis and Transplant Association, Report on management of renal failure in Europe, XXIII, 1992. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(suppl 1)6- 25
Jungers  PChauveau  PDescamps-Latscha  B  et al.  Age and gender-related incidence of chronic renal failure in a French urban area: a prospective epidemiologic study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;111542- 1546
Khan  IHCatto  GREdward  NMacLeod  AM Chronic renal failure: factors influencing nephrology referral. QJM. 1994;87559- 564
Strauss  MJPort  FKSomen  CWolfe  RA An estimate of the size of the US predialysis population with renal insufficiency and anemia. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993;21264- 269
McGeown  MG Prevalence of advanced renal failure in Northern Ireland. BMJ. 1990;301900- 903
Cohn  SHVartsky  DYasumura  S  et al.  Compartmental body composition based on total-body nitrogen, potassium, and calcium. Am J Physiol. 1980;239E524- E530
Lindeman  RDTobin  JShock  NW Longitudinal studies on the rate of decline in renal function with age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985;33278- 285
Rowe  JWAndres  RTobin  JDNorris  AHShock  NW The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Gerontol. 1976;31155- 163
Rowe  JWAndres  RTobin  JD Age-adjusted standards for creatinine clearance. Ann Intern Med. 1976;84567- 569
Wald  H The weight of normal adult human kidneys and its variability. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1937;23493- 500
Kaplan  CPasternack  BShah  HGallo  G Age-related incidence of sclerotic glomeruli in human kidneys. Am J Pathol. 1975;80227- 234
Kappel  BOlsen  S Cortical interstitial tissue and sclerosed glomeruli in the normal human kidney, related to age and sex: a quantitative study. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat. 1980;387271- 277
Greger  RHeidland  A Action and clinical use of diuretics. Cameron  JSDavison  AMGrunfeld  JPeds.Clinical Nephrology. London, England Oxford University1991;197
Favre  LGlasson  PVallotton  MB Reversible acute renal failure from combined triamterene and indomethacin: a study in healthy subjects. Ann Intern Med. 1982;96317- 320
Raal  FJKalk  WJTaylor  DROsler  CEPanz  VR The relationship between the development and progression of microalbuminuria and arterial blood pressure in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1992;16221- 227
Mathiesen  ERRonn  BJensen  TStorm  BDeckert  T Relationship between blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in development of microalbuminuria. Diabetes. 1990;39245- 249
Nelson  RGPettitt  DJBaird  HR  et al.  Pre-diabetic blood pressure predicts urinary albumin excretion after the onset of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Pima indians. Diabetologia. 1993;36998- 1001
Barzilay  JWarram  JHBak  MLaffel  LMCanessa  MKrolewski  AS Predisposition to hypertension: risk factor for nephropathy and hypertension in IDDM. Kidney Int. 1992;41723- 730
Krolewski  ASCanessa  MWarram  JH  et al.  Predisposition to hypertension and susceptibility to renal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1988;318140- 145
Viberti  GCKeen  HWiseman  MJ Raised arterial pressure in parents of proteinuric insulin-dependent diabetics. BMJ. 1987;295515- 517
Baumgartner  RNHeymsfield  SBRoche  AF Human body composition and the epidemiology of chronic disease. Obes Res. 1995;373- 95
Boorsook  HBubroff  JW The hydrolysis of phosphocreatine and the origin of urinary creatinine. J Biol Chem. 1947;168493- 510
Not Available, Morbidity and Mortality: 1996 Chartbook on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases.  Bethesda, Md National Institutes of Health1996;
Cockcroft  DWGault  MH Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron. 1976;1631- 41

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

* * SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE * *

Our websites may be periodically unavailable between midnight and 04:00 ET Thursday, July 10th, for regularly scheduled maintenance.

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 121

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles