Accepted for Publication: December 3, 2014.
Published Online: February 9, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.7774.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: All financial and material support for this study was provided by New York University.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: New York University had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Graduate students from New York University’s Science, Health, and Environmental Reporting and Business and Economic Reporting programs assisted with data collection and analysis: Lydia Anderson, MA, Rebecca Cudmore, MA, Kathryn Free, MA, Chelsea Harvey, MA, Joshua Krisch, MA, Jamie Lee, MA, Sarah Lewin, MA, Claire Maldarelli, MA, Elizabeth Newbern, MA, Hannah Newman, MA, Amy Nordrum, MA, Alexandra Ossola, MA, Neel Patel, MA, Krystnell Storr, MA, and Manasi Vaidya MA. Rob Garver and Tom Detzel of ProPublica contributed to useful discussions. Ms Anderson was compensated from the author’s research account for her role as the second reader of medical articles. No other individuals were compensated for their contributions.