Published Online: October 28, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11933.
Study concept and design: Ayers, Althouse, Johnson, Cohen.
Acquisition of data: Ayers, Althouse.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Ayers, Althouse, Cohen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ayers, Althouse.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ayers, Althouse, Johnson, Cohen.
Statistical analysis: Ayers, Althouse.
Obtained funding: Cohen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Althouse, Johnson.
Study supervision: Cohen.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Drs Ayers and Althouse share an equity stake in a consulting group, Directing Medicine LLC, that helps public health investigators implement some of the ideas embodied in this work. The data generation procedures, however, rely on public archives. There are no other reported conflicts of interest.
Funding/Support: This work was supported through a cooperative agreement between the Monday Campaigns and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr Ayers also acknowledges the support of the National Cancer Institute (RCA173299A).
Role of the Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Andy Keller, BS, and Rachel Althouse, BA, for help with translation. We thank Keith Schnakenberg, MA, and Mauricio Santilliana, PhD, MSc, for advice on data modeling.