Accepted for Publication: April 14, 2013.
Published Online: July 15, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.8203.
Acquisition of data: Chu, Cecchi, Corey, Durante-Mangoni, Fowler, Gordon, Grossi, Hannan, Hoen, Muñoz, Rizk, Kanj, Selton-Suty, Sexton, Spelman, Ravasio, Tripodi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lalani, Park, Cecchi, Durante-Mangoni, Gordon, Hannan, Hoen, Spelman, Wang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lalani, Hannan, Sexton, Wang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Lalani, Park, Grossi, Rizk, Spelman.
Obtained funding: Chu, Hannan, Muñoz, Wang.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Chu, Fowler, Gordon, Hoen, Muñoz, Rizk, Wang.
Study supervision: Cecchi, Corey, Hoen, Sexton, Wang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Andrew Wang is supported in part by American Heart Association Mid-Atlantic Affiliate Grant in Aid 12GRNT12030071 for this study.
Disclaimer: Dr Lalani is an employee of the US government. As such, this work was prepared as part of official duties. Title 17 USC 105 provides that “copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government.” Title 17 USC 101 defines a US government work as “a work prepared by a military service member or employee of the US government as part of that person’s official duties.” The content of this publication is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the US government.
Group Information: International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) Investigators and Sites: Argentina: Liliana Clara, MD, and Marisa Sanchez, MD (Hospital Italiano); José Casabé, MD, PhD, and Claudia Cortes, MD (Hospital Universitario de la Fundaciòn Favaloro); Francisco Nacinovich, MD, Pablo Fernandez Oses, MD, Ricardo Ronderos, MD, Adriana Sucari, MD, and Jorge Thierer, MD (Instituto Cardiovascular); and Javier Altclas, MD, and Silvia Kogan, MD (Sanatorio de la Trinidad Mitre). Australia: Denis Spelman, MD (Alfred Hospital); Eugene Athan, MD, and Owen Harris, MBBS (Barwon Health); Karina Kennedy, MBBS, and Ren Tan, MBBS (Canberra Hospital); David Gordon, MBBS, PhD, and Lito Papanicolas, MBBS (Flinders Medical Centre); Damon Eisen, MBBS, MD, Leeanne Grigg, MBBS, and Alan Street, MBBS (Royal Melbourne Hospital); Tony Korman, MD, and Despina Kotsanas, BSc (Hons) (Southern Health); Robyn Dever, MD, Phillip Jones, MD, Pam Konecny, MD, Richard Lawrence, MD, David Rees, MD, and Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (St. George Hospital); Michael P. Feneley, MD, John Harkness, MD, Phillip Jones, MD, and Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (St. Vincent’s); Phillip Jones, MD, and Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (Sutherland); and Phillip Jones, MD, Jeffrey Post, MD, Porl Reinbott, and Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (The University of New South Wales). Austria: Rainer Gattringer, MD, and Franz Wiesbauer, MD (Vienna General Hospital). Brazil: Adriana Ribas Andrade, MD, Ana Cláudia Passos de Brito, MD, and Armenio Costa Guimarães, MD (Ana Neri Hospital); Max Grinberg, MD, PhD, Alfredo José Mansur, MD, PhD, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, MD, Tania Mara Varejao Strabelli, MD, and Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira, MD (Heart Institute [Incor], University of Sao Paulo Medical School); Regina Aparecida de Medeiros Tranchesi, MD, and Marcelo Goulart Paiva, MD (Hospital 9 de Julho); Claudio Querido Fortes, MD, PhD (Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro); Auristela de Oliveira Ramos, MD (Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia); and Giovanna Ferraiuoli, MD, PhD, Wilma Golebiovski, MD, Cristiane Lamas, MD, Clara Weksler, MD, and Marisa Santos, MD, PhD (Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janerio). Canada: James A. Karlowsky, MD, Yoav Keynan, MD, Andrew M. Morris, MD, and Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB (University of Manitoba). Chile: Sandra Braun Jones, MD, and Patricia Garcia, MD (Hospital Clínico Pont, Universidad Católica de Chile); and M. Cereceda, MD, Alberto Fica, MD, and Rodrigo Montagna Mella, MD (Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile). Columbia: Ricardo Fernandez, MD, Liliana Franco, MD, Javier Gonzalez, MD, and Astrid Natalia Jaramillo, MD (Clinica Cardiovascular Medellín). Croatia: Bruno Barsic, MD, PhD, Suzana Bukovski, MD, PhD, Vladimir Krajinovic, MD, Ana Pangercic, MD, Igor Rudez, MD, and Josip Vincelj, MD, PhD (University Hospital for Infectious Diseases). Czech Republic: Tomas Freiberger, MD, PhD, Jiri Pol, MD, and Barbora Zaloudikova, MSc (Centre for Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantation). Egypt: Zainab Ashour, MD, Amani El Kholy, MD, Marwa Mishaal, MD, Dina Osama, MD, and Hussien Rizk, MD (Cairo University Medical School). France: Neijla Aissa, MD, Corentine Alauzet, MD, Francois Alla, MD, PhD, Catherine Campagnac, RN, Thanh Doco-Lecompte, MD, and Christine Selton-Suty, MD (CHU Nancy-Brabois); Jean-Paul Casalta, MD, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, MD, Gilbert Habib, MD, Didier Raoult, MD, PhD, and Franck Thuny, MD (Faculté de Médecine de Marseille); Francois Delahaye, MD, PhD, Armelle Delahaye, RN, and Francois Vandenesch, MD (Hospital Louis Pradel); Erwan Donal, MD, Pierre Yves Donnio, PhD, Erwan Flecher, MD, PhD, Christian Michelet, MD, PhD, Matthieu Revest, MD, and Pierre Tattevin, MD, PhD (Pontchaillou University); Florent Chevalier, MD, Antoine Jeu, MD, Jean Paul Rémadi, MD, Dan Rusinaru, MD, and Christophe Tribouilloy, MD, PhD (South Hospital Amiens); and Yvette Bernard, MD, Catherine Chirouze, MD, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, Joel Leroy, MD, and Patrick Plesiat, MD (University Medical Center of Besançon). Germany: Christoph Naber, MD, PhD, and Carl Neuerburg (Universitaetskliniken Bergmannsheil Bochum); and Bahram Mazaheri, PhD, Christoph Naber, MD, PhD, and Carl Neuerburg (University Essen). Greece: Tsaganos Thomas, MD, and Efthymia Giannitsioti, MD (Attikon University General Hospital); and Elena Mylona, MD, Olga Paniara, MD, PhD, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, MD, John Pyros, MD, and Athanasios Skoutelis, MD, PhD (Evangelismos General Hospital of Athens). India: Gautam Sharma, MD (All India Institute of Medical Sciences); and Johnson Francis, MD, DM, Lathi Nair, MD, DM, Vinod Thomas, MD, DM, and Krishnan Venugopal, MD, DM (Medical College Calicut). Ireland: Margaret Hannan, MB, BCh, BAO, MSc, and John Hurley, MB, BCh (Mater Hospitals). Israel: Amos Cahan, MD, Dan Gilon, MD, Sarah Israel, MD, Maya Korem, MD, and Jacob Strahilevitz, MD (Hadassah-Hebrew University); and Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB, and Jacob Strahilevitz, MD (Tel Aviv University School of Medicine). Italy: Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, MD, PhD, Irene Mattucci, MD, Daniela Pinto, MD, Federica Agrusta, MD, Alessandra Senese, MD, Enrico Ragone, MD, PhD, and Riccardo Utili, MD, PhD (II Università di Napoli); Enrico Cecchi, MD, Francesco De Rosa, MD, Davide Forno, MD, Massimo Imazio, MD, and Rita Trinchero, MD (Maria Vittoria Hospital); Alessandro Tebini, MD, Paolo Grossi, MD, PhD, Mariangela Lattanzio, MD, and Antonio Toniolo, MD (Ospedale di Circolo Varese); Antonio Goglio, MD, Annibale Raglio, MD, DTM&H, Veronica Ravasio, MD, Marco Rizzi, MD, and Fredy Suter, MD (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo); and Giampiero Carosi, MD, Silvia Magri, MD, and Liana Signorini, MD (Spedali Civili–Università di Brescia). Lebanon: Khalil Anouti, MD, Jad Chahoud, MD, Zeina Kanafani, MD, MS, and Souha S. Kanj, MD (American University of Beirut Medical Center). Malaysia: Imran Abidin, MD (University of Malaya Medical Center); and Syahidah Syed Tamin, MD (National Heart Institute). Mexico: Eduardo Rivera Martínez, MD, and Gabriel Israel Soto Nieto, MD (Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez). Netherlands: Jan T. M. van der Meer, MD, PhD (University of Amsterdam). New Zealand: Stephen Chambers, MD, MSc (University of Otago); David Holland, MB, ChB, PhD (Middlemore Hospital); Arthur Morris, MD (Diagnostic Medlab); Nigel Raymond, MB, ChB (Wellington Hospital); Kerry Read, MB, ChB (North Shore Hospital); and David R. Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H (University of Otago). Romania: Stefan Dragulescu, MD, PhD, Adina Ionac, MD, PhD, and Cristian Mornos, MD (Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy). Russia: O. M. Butkevich, PhD (Learning-Scientific Centre of Medical Centre of Russian Presidential Affairs Government Medical Centre of Russia); and Natalia Chipigina, PhD, Ozerecky Kirill, MD, Kulichenko Vadim, PhD, and Tatiana Vinogradova, MD, PhD (Russian Medical State University). Saudi Arabia: Jameela Edathodu, MBBS, and Magid Halim, MBBS (King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center). Singapore: Yee-Yun Liew, and Ru-San Tan, MBBS (National Heart Centre). Slovenia: Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, MD, PhD, Mateja Logar, MD, PhD, and Manica Mueller-Premru, MD, PhD (Medical Center Ljublijana). South Africa: Patrick Commerford, MD, Anita Commerford, MD, Eduan Deetlefs, MD, Cass Hansa, MD, and Mpiko Ntsekhe, MD (University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital). Spain: Manuel Almela, MD, Yolanda Armero, MD, Manuel Azqueta, MD, Ximena Castañeda, MD, Carlos Cervera, MD, PhD, Ana del Rio, MD, PhD, Carlos Falces, MD, PhD, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, PhD, Guillermina Fita, MD, Jose M. Gatell, MD, PhD, Magda Heras MD, PhD, Jaime Llopis, MD, PhD, Francesc Marco, MD, PhD, Carlos A. Mestres, MD, PhD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, Asuncion Moreno, MD, PhD, Salvador Ninot, MD, Carlos Paré, MD, PhD, Joan M. Pericas, MD, Jose Ramirez, MD, PhD, Irene Rovira, MD, and Marta Sitges, MD, PhD (Hospital Clinic–IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona); Ignasi Anguera, MD, PhD, Bernat Font, MD, and Joan Raimon Guma, MD (Hospitál de Sabadell); Javier Bermejo, MD, PhD, Emilio Bouza, MD, PhD, Miguel Angel Garcia Fernández, MD, Victor Gonzalez-Ramallo, MD, Mercedes Marín, MD, Patricia Muñoz, MD, PhD, Miguel Pedromingo, MD, Jorge Roda, MD, Marta Rodríguez-Créixems, MD, PhD, and Jorge Solis, MD (Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón); Benito Almirante, MD, Nuria Fernandez-Hidalgo, MD, and Pilar Tornos, MD (Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron); and Arístides de Alarcón, MD, PhD, and Ricardo Parra (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío). Sweden: Eric Alestig, MD, Magnus Johansson, MD, PhD, Lars Olaison, MD, PhD, and Ulrika Snygg-Martin, MD (Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset/Östra). Thailand: Orathai Pachirat, MD, Pimchitra Pachirat, MD, Burabha Pussadhamma, MD, and Vichai Senthong, MD (Khon Kaen University). United Kingdom: Anna Casey, MBBS, Tom Elliott, PhD, DSc, Peter Lambert, BSc, PhD, DSc, and Richard Watkin, MBBS (Queen Elizabeth Hospital); and Christina Eyton, and John L. Klein, MD (St. Thomas’ Hospital). United States: Suzanne Bradley, MD, and Carol Kauffman, MD (Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center); Roger Bedimo, MD, MS (Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center); Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Anna Lisa Crowley, MD, MHS, Pamela Douglas, MD, Laura Drew, RN, BSN, Vance G. Fowler, MD, MHS, Thomas Holland, MD, Tahaniyat Lalani, MD, MHS, Daniel Mudrick, MD, Zaniab Samad, MD, MHS, Daniel Sexton, MD, Martin Stryjewski, MD, MHS, Andrew Wang, MD, and Christopher W. Woods, MD, MPH (Duke University Medical Center); Stamatios Lerakis, MD (Emory University); Robert Cantey, MD, Lisa Steed, PhD, and Dannah Wray, MD, MHS (Medical University of South Carolina); Stuart A. Dickerman, MD (New York University Medical Center); Hector Bonilla, MD, Joseph DiPersio, MD, PhD, and Sara-Jane Salstrom, RN (Summa Health System); John Baddley, MD, and Mukesh Patel, MD (University of Alabama at Birmingham); Gail Peterson, MD, and Amy Stancoven, MD (The University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center); Donald Levine, MD, Jonathan Riddle, and Michael Rybak, PharmD, MPH (Wayne State University); and Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS (Quintiles). ICE Coordinating Center: Khaula Baloch, MPH, Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Christy C. Dixon, Vance G. Fowler, Jr, MD, MHS, Tina Harding, RN, BSN, Marian Jones-Richmond, Paul Pappas, MS, Lawrence P. Park, PhD, Bob Sanderford, and Judy Stafford, MS. ICE Publications Committee: Kevin Anstrom, PhD, Eugene Athan, MD, Arnold S. Bayer, MD, Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS, Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, A. W. Karchmer, MD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, David R. Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, Daniel J. Sexton, MD, and Andrew Wang, MD. ICE Steering Committee: Arnold S. Bayer, MD, Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS, Vivian Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, David T. Durack, MD, D Phil, Susannah Eykyn, MD, Vance G. Fowler, Jr, MD, MHS, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, Phillipe Moreillon, MD, PhD, Lars Olaison, MD, PhD, Didier Raoult, MD, PhD, Ethan Rubinstein MD, LLB, and Daniel J. Sexton, MD.
Correction: This article was corrected on September 30, 2013, for errors in Figure 3.