Accepted for Publication: March 24, 2013.
Published Online: June 24, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.7049.
Study concept and design: McCrum, Joynt, Gawande, Jha.
Acquisition of data: McCrum, Jha.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: McCrum.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Joynt, Orav, Gawande, Jha.
Statistical analysis: McCrum, Orav.
Obtained funding: Jha.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Jha.
Supervision: Gawande, Jha.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Gawande reported receiving royalties from publishers for writing and honoraria from clinical organizations and associations for lectures and teaching on approaches to improving health system outcomes, which can include increasing transparency. In the past 12 months, these publishers and organizations have included the following: Henry Holt, Picador USA, Conde Nast, HarperCollins, Pearson Publishing, Houghton Mifflin, McGraw-Hill, Harvard Business School Press, Profile Books Ltd, The New England Journal of Medicine, Penguin Books/India, Sosoh Publishing, Commonwealth Publishing, China Renmin University Press, Lua de Papel, Antoni Bosch Editor, Asa Editore, Editorial Diagonal del Grup62/Edicione, Verlagsgruppe Random House GmbH, Uitgeverij Nieuwezjds, Baronet, Znak, Humanitas, Giulio Einaudi Editore S.p.A., Sextante, Book21, Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Shinyusha Co Ltd, Domingo Publishing, Cheers Publishing, Mehta Publishing House, Misuzu Shobo, Codecs, First News-TriViet Publishing, Cengage Learning, Internazionale Magazine, Eriko Yamauchi, CBS Television, Public Broadcasting Service, TNT Network, Fresenius, National Hospice & Palliative Care Organization, PeaceHealth, Intermountain Health Care, ABT Assoc, Partners Healthcare, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American College of Surgeons, Leading Age, Carolinas Healthcare, University of Albany, American Society of Healthcare Engineers, and University of California at San Francisco.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Cabot Fellowship from the Center for Surgery and Public Health at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Dr McCrum); grant 1K23HL109177-01 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Dr Joynt); and the Lerner Research Award from Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (Dr Joynt). Additional support was provided from internal department funds from the Harvard School of Public Health.
Role of the Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design, conduct, or reporting of the study.